Une étude de l’Université d’Oviedo lie la fibromyalgie au syndrome de fatigue chronique

La recherche, en collaboration avec des scientifiques de l’Université Johns Hopkins et des NIH de Washington, confirme l’existence d’un ensemble de gènes réprimés associés à trois voies génétiques principales.

Juan Luis Fernández Martínez

Les recherches développées par une équipe de l’Université d’Oviedo, en collaboration avec des scientifiques de l’Université Johns Hopkins et des NIH de Washington, ont établi un  lien entre la fibromyalgie et le syndrome de fatigue chronique.

Les études ont fourni une signature génétique à petite échelle et ont confirmé l’existence d’un ensemble de gènes réprimés associés à trois voies génétiques principales, avec un “grand sens biologique” et le liant au syndrome de fatigue chronique, a rapporté l’institution universitaire. Asturien dans un communiqué. La fibromyalgie est considérée comme un syndrome pouvant entraîner une sensibilité accrue à la douleur, à la fatigue, aux raideurs musculaires, aux problèmes de sommeil, à une possible perte de mémoire et de concentration, à des maux de tête ou à des problèmes de digestion, rapporte EFE.

Les symptômes sont variés et leur diagnostic est compliqué et peut être confondu avec le syndrome de fatigue chronique, la polyarthrite rhumatoïde ou même la sclérose en plaques. De plus, son diagnostic ne fait pas consensus et les critères, qui ont un degré élevé de subjectivité, ont été modifiés au fil des ans. Cette difficulté a fait qu’on l’appelle parfois “la douleur invisible” et que ceux qui en souffrent se sentent incompris, avec un état de frustration permanent qui aggrave souvent leur état. En outre, la  fibromyalgie pourrait être qualifiée de “maladie féminine”, car il affecte statistiquement les femmes plus que les hommes. Ses causes sont inconnues et sont associées à différents événements tels que les infections virales, les opérations chirurgicales, les accouchements, les événements affectifs et même les abus. 

Les résultats obtenus proviennent de la modélisation d’une étude génétique réalisée auprès d’une cohorte de 28 femmes atteintes de fibromyalgie et diagnostiquées entre 28 et 55 ans, en comparaison avec des volontaires sains âgés de 28 à 51 ans. Ces études fournissent une petite signature génétique. échelle composée de 57 gènes pour le diagnostic.

Les analyses ont montré que les trois voies génétiques altérées les plus importantes sont liées à l’activation des cellules étoilées hépatiques (adipocytes hépatiques) qui sont révélatrices de lésions dans cet organe; phosphorylation oxydative et pathologies respiratoires de type BPCO (maladie pulmonaire obstructive). Bien que ces résultats soient préliminaires et difficiles à interpréter, ils semblent confirmer le rôle important de la voie de signalisation du glutamate, un neurotransmetteur très important dans le traitement de la fatigue chronique et de la dépression.

Ils présentent également une expression altérée des gènes liés à l’atténuation du taux métabolique et des voies inflammatoires associées à l’interféron alfa, une cytokine impliquée dans la régulation de la réponse immunitaire contre les infections. Le professeur Juan Luis Fernández-Martínez souligne l’importance de la recherche translationnelle, dont les résultats ont une incidence sur les médicaments que reçoivent les patients. Les équipes américaines avec lesquelles il collabore sont hautement intégrées.

Fernández-Martínez a déclaré que, «en l’absence de confirmation clinique», ces résultats relient la fibromyalgie au syndrome de fatigue chronique. L’objectif serait donc maintenant d’étudier les différences entre eux, ainsi que les mécanismes communs et comparez-les avec des voies modifiées dans la sclérose en plaques. Selon les chercheurs, ces résultats ont non seulement une valeur diagnostique, mais permettent également la recherche de nouvelles cibles thérapeutiques  et le repositionnement de médicaments capables de réguler de manière optimale les gènes altérés et de minimiser les effets secondaires.

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