Les 10 lignes directrices pour faire face au syndrome des jambes sans repos

Le syndrome des jambes sans repos (SJSR) est un trouble fréquent et chronique. Il s’agit d’une envie irrésistible de bouger les jambes associée à des sensations désagréables, non douloureuses, souvent décrites comme des picotements, ou des crevaisons, par exemple. Ceux-ci sont exacerbés par le repos, tandis que le mouvement produit un sentiment de soulagement. L’étiologie de ce trouble est inconnue, bien que l’insuffisance cérébrale en fer et les altérations de la neurotransmission de la dopamine soient considérées comme des causes possibles.

Selon l’Association espagnole du syndrome des jambes sans repos (AESPI), environ 80% des personnes atteintes de cette maladie effectuent des mouvements périodiques des extrémités pendant le sommeil. C’est une secousse qui se produit avec une fréquence de 20 à 30 secondes pendant la nuit et, habituellement, provoquant des interruptions de sommeil continues.

L’une des plus grandes plaintes des patients SPI est la réduction de leur qualité de vie face à la privation chronique de sommeil, la fatigue, l’insomnie à plusieurs reprises et même la diminution de la capacité à se concentrer pendant la journée, en plus d’affecter votre état d’esprit.

CARACTÉRISTIQUES DE LA MALADIE

Dans une interview à Infosalus, le Dr Pilar Rubio, du service de neurophysiologie clinique de l’hôpital Universitari i Politècnic La Fe à Valence, souligne que le SPI peut être présenté à tout âge, à la fois dans l’enfance et à l’âge adulte; bien qu’il prévienne qu’il prédomine à partir de la troisième ou quatrième décennie de la vie, et sa fréquence augmente avec l’âge.

“Le trouble peut survenir spontanément ou être associé à d’autres pathologies parmi lesquelles la carence en fer ou l’insuffisance rénale terminale. Il a également été lié à des processus tels que le diabète sucré, les troubles rhumatologiques, ainsi que des troubles neurologiques, y compris la maladie de Parkinson. Dans les conditions gastro-intestinales telles que la maladie cœliaque et la maladie de Crohn, cette association a également été décrite “, ajoute l’expert.

À son tour, il indique que les symptômes des jambes sans repos peuvent être déclenchés par l’utilisation de certains médicaments tels que les antidépresseurs. De plus, pendant la grossesse, et surtout au cours des derniers mois, jusqu’à 20% des femmes développent un SPI. Après l’accouchement, les symptômes disparaissent souvent. Cependant, il existe une relation évidente entre le nombre de grossesses et les risques de développer un syndrome de détresse chronique.

D’autre part, Rubio affirme que c’est un trouble qui peut apparaître spontanément, bien que 40% des patients aient des antécédents familiaux de jambes agitées, c’est-à-dire qu’ils ont un facteur héréditaire, étant le type de transmission autosomique dominante “.

Le diagnostic est fait avec une histoire clinique adéquate, ajoute le spécialiste. Aucune étude spéciale n’est requise, sauf si une association avec d’autres troubles du sommeil est suspectée, comme des mouvements périodiques des jambes. “Dans ce cas, le diagnostic serait fait avec un polysomnogramme”, ajoute-t-il.

À propos du traitement, l’expert de l’équipe de neurophysiologie clinique de l’Hôpital La Fe de Valence souligne qu’il est symptomatique et personnalisé. “Actuellement, un large éventail de médicaments est disponible à partir du fer associé à la vitamine C, les médicaments dopaminergiques, la gabapentine, les benzodiazépines, entre autres, qui améliorent les symptômes”, dit-il.

CONSEILS POUR SURMONTER

Par conséquent, de l’AESPI conseillent de faire face à la maladie, en dehors du traitement pharmacologique:

1  .- Maintenir des horaires de sommeil réguliers, aller au lit et se lever en même temps, et être en mesure d’avoir un environnement de sommeil calme et confortable.

2  .- Évitez la consommation de substances excitantes, le type de caféine, et l’alcool, et surtout le soir.

3  .- Effectuer un exercice doux, pas intense, dans l’après-midi comme étirement, ou la relaxation, par exemple, ainsi que le massage doux dans les jambes associées à des bains chauds et froids.

4.  -Éviter certains médicaments qui peuvent aggraver les symptômes (antihistaminiques, certains sédatifs qui bloquent la dopamine, et certains antidépresseurs)

5  .- Parlez ouvertement du SPI avec votre famille et vos amis.

6  .- Ne pas se battre contre la peinture. Si vous essayez de supprimer le besoin de bouger, vos symptômes peuvent s’aggraver. Un bon programme d’exercices peut aider le corps à mieux faire face à la maladie. L’exercice régulier peut maintenir la flexibilité, favoriser une bonne posture, maintenir des muscles forts et agiles articulations.

7  .- Ecrire un journal de rêve. Tenez un registre des médicaments et des stratégies qui aident ou soulagent votre bataille avec le SJSR et partagez-le avec votre médecin.

8  .- Obtenez plus grand. Vous pouvez trouver cela plus confortable si vous élevez le bureau ou les étagères à une hauteur qui vous permet de rester debout pendant que vous travaillez ou lisez.

9  .- Occupez l’esprit. Si vous le maintenez actif, les symptômes de RLS peuvent diminuer.

10  .- Commencez et terminez la journée avec des étirements. Les thérapies complémentaires peuvent aider physiquement et émotionnellement avec RLS. Comme le yoga, le tai-chi, la musicothérapie et l’acupuncture. En fait, certains sont offerts dans le cadre du processus de réhabilitation du SPI.

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