¿Las infecciones bacterianas pueden causar fibromialgia?

No sabemos mucho sobre la fibromialgia. Pero por lo que sabemos, es obvio que es una condición muy complicada. La mayoría de las personas con esta afección pueden recordar un momento en que comenzaron a notar los síntomas de la fibromialgia. Y si bien es bastante raro encontrar personas que tengan exactamente la misma historia, muchas personas con fibromialgia informan que desarrollan la afección después de una infección bacteriana.

Es una pista intrigante de los posibles orígenes de la condición. Entonces, ¿cuál es exactamente el vínculo entre la infección y la fibromialgia? ¿Y qué puede decirnos sobre las causas de la fibromialgia?

Infecciones Bacterianas y Fibromialgia

No sabemos qué causa la fibromialgia. Pero sí sabemos que hay cosas que parecen aumentar la probabilidad de desarrollar la afección. Los estudios de personas con fibromialgia han demostrado que un número significativo de ellos desarrollaron fibromialgia luego de que el cuerpo sufriera algún tipo de trauma.

Un  estudio publicado en 2015  observó a 939 pacientes con fibromialgia que encontraron algunas correlaciones interesantes entre la enfermedad y el trauma físico. 203 de los pacientes habían experimentado algún tipo de trauma físico justo antes de desarrollar la enfermedad. Y 53 habían experimentado una infección bacteriana.

Los autores del estudio llaman a estos “eventos precipitantes”, lo que significa que parecen conducir a la aparición de los síntomas.

Otros estudios han atraído algunas conexiones más directas entre los eventos desencadenantes y la fibromialgia. Un estudio encontró que la fibromialgia y la enfermedad de Lyme  parecen estar estrechamente relacionadas . Obviamente, ambas condiciones conducen a síntomas similares. Pero parece que hay una conexión más profunda también.

Un estudio encontró que en pacientes con fibromialgia que informaron desarrollar la afección después de una infección,  alrededor del 15% la  desarrollaron después de contraer la enfermedad de Lyme. Esto lo convierte en una de las infecciones más comunes que conducen a la fibromialgia. Pero  otros estudios  han encontrado tasas significativas de conexión entre enfermedades como la infección por VIH y la infección por parvovirus.

Pero aunque estos estudios parecen sugerir que existe un vínculo entre ellos, no estamos seguros de por qué. Se necesitan más estudios para establecer definitivamente eso. Sin embargo, podemos especular sobre algunas de las posibles explicaciones.

No Infecciones Bacterianas  Porque  Fibromialgia

Algunas personas han sugerido que la fibromialgia en sí misma podría ser una infección bacteriana. Pero si bien parece que las infecciones bacterianas pueden desencadenar la fibromialgia, probablemente este no sea el caso. Después de todo, muchas personas, probablemente la mayoría de ellos, desarrollan la enfermedad sin ningún signo de infección bacteriana. Y hay  muchos otros eventos  que pueden desencadenar la fibromialgia además de la infección.

En cambio, la relación entre la infección y la fibromialgia es probablemente mucho más compleja.

La primera posibilidad es que la bacteria en sí misma esté causando los síntomas de la fibromialgia. En lugar de desencadenar el desarrollo de la fibromialgia, la bacteria infecta el cuerpo y crea la afección que llamamos fibromialgia. Esencialmente, eso significaría que la fibromialgia es más un conjunto de síntomas comunes creados por muchas condiciones diferentes que una condición en sí misma.

Pero esto  también es poco probable . Si las bacterias estaban causando los síntomas de la fibromialgia, entonces sería posible controlar esos síntomas con antibióticos. Por supuesto, esto no parece ser posible. Y la mayoría de los médicos rechazan esta idea.

La explicación más probable es que de alguna manera las infecciones crean una respuesta en el cuerpo que contribuye a que alguien desarrolle fibromialgia.

Hay evidencia de que algo cambia en el cerebro de las personas con fibromialgia. El sistema nervioso parece volverse  más sensible  al dolor. Y comienza a transmitir señales de dolor a lo largo de los nervios sin ningún estímulo externo. Y si bien no podemos decir con certeza que esta es la causa de la fibromialgia, sí parece jugar un papel en por qué la condición causa dolor.

La pregunta es: ¿las infecciones bacterianas juegan algún papel en el desencadenamiento de esta hipersensibilidad?

Sabemos que las infecciones pueden provocar inflamación en el tejido. Y sabemos que la inflamación se asocia con niveles más altos de células inmunes en la sangre. Y estas células inmunes liberan algo llamado citoquinas.

Las citoquinas son proteínas que desempeñan un papel para mantener el sistema inmunológico funcional. Pero las citoquinas también parecen jugar un papel en las condiciones de dolor crónico como la fibromialgia. Las citocinas comienzan a desencadenar respuestas de dolor en el sistema nervioso. Con el tiempo, estas respuestas al dolor pueden desencadenar hipersensibilidad.

Esta podría ser la explicación de por qué la infección parece conducir a la fibromialgia. Básicamente, las infecciones producen inflamación, lo que conduce a citocinas. Estas citocinas  desencadenan señales de dolor  y, eventualmente, hipersensibilidad del sistema nervioso.

Y debido a que el sistema nervioso ahora es más sensible al dolor y desencadena señales de dolor por sí mismo, conduce al dolor generalizado de la fibromialgia. Esto es solo una teoría, y se necesita más investigación. Pero es una explicación lógica para el vínculo entre la infección y la fibromialgia.

¿Entonces, qué piensas? ¿Fue su fibromialgia desencadenada por una infección? ¿Qué crees que es el enlace? Dinos en los comentarios.

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