Kunnen bacteriële infecties leiden tot fibromyalgie?

We weten niet veel over fibromyalgie. Maar van wat we wel weten, is het duidelijk dat het een zeer gecompliceerde toestand is. De meeste mensen met de aandoening kunnen zich een tijd herinneren waarin ze voor het eerst de symptomen van fibromyalgie opmerken. En hoewel het vrij zeldzaam is om mensen te vinden die precies hetzelfde verhaal hebben, melden veel mensen met fibromyalgie dat ze de aandoening na bacteriële infecties ontwikkelen.

Het is een intrigerende aanwijzing voor de mogelijke oorsprong van de aandoening. Dus, wat is precies het verband tussen infectie en fibromyalgie? En wat kan het ons vertellen over de oorzaken van fibromyalgie?

Bacteriële infecties en fibromyalgie

We weten niet wat de oorzaak is van fibromyalgie. Maar we weten wel dat er dingen zijn waardoor je meer kans maakt om de aandoening te ontwikkelen. Studies van mensen met fibromyalgie hebben aangetoond dat een aanzienlijk aantal van hen fibromyalgie heeft ontwikkeld nadat het lichaam een ​​soort trauma heeft ondergaan.

Een  studie gepubliceerd in 2015  keek naar 939 patiënten met fibromyalgie vonden enkele interessante correlaties tussen de ziekte en fysiek trauma. 203 van de patiënten hadden een soort fysiek trauma ervaren vlak voordat ze de ziekte ontwikkelden. En 53 hadden een bacteriële infectie gehad.

De auteurs van het onderzoek noemen deze “gebeurtenissen die de kop opsteken”, wat betekent dat ze lijken te leiden tot het begin van symptomen.

Andere studies hebben enkele meer directe verbanden gelegd tussen precipiterende gebeurtenissen en fibromyalgie. Eén studie toonde aan dat fibromyalgie en de ziekte van Lyme  nauw met elkaar verbonden lijken te zijn . Het is duidelijk dat beide aandoeningen tot vergelijkbare symptomen leiden. Maar er lijkt ook een diepere verbinding te zijn.

Eén studie toonde aan dat bij fibromyalgiepatiënten die meldden dat ze de aandoening ontwikkelden na een infectie,  ongeveer 15% het  had ontwikkeld na de ziekte van Lyme. Dit maakt het een van de meest voorkomende infecties die leiden tot fibromyalgie. Maar  andere studies  hebben een significant verband gevonden tussen aandoeningen zoals HIV-infectie en parvovirus-infectie.

Maar hoewel deze studies lijken aan te geven dat er een verband bestaat tussen, weten we niet zeker waarom dat is. Verdere studies zijn nodig om dat definitief vast te stellen. We kunnen echter speculeren over enkele van de mogelijke verklaringen.

Bacteriële infecties  veroorzaken  fibromyalgie

Sommige mensen hebben gesuggereerd dat fibromyalgie zelf een bacteriële infectie kan zijn. Maar hoewel het lijkt dat bacteriële infecties fibromyalgie kunnen veroorzaken, is dit waarschijnlijk niet het geval. Immers, veel mensen, waarschijnlijk de meerderheid van hen, ontwikkelen de aandoening zonder tekenen van bacteriële infectie. En er zijn  veel andere gebeurtenissen  die fibromyalgie kunnen veroorzaken naast een infectie.

In plaats daarvan is de relatie tussen infectie en fibromyalgie waarschijnlijk veel complexer.

De eerste mogelijkheid is dat de bacteriën zelf de symptomen van fibromyalgie veroorzaken. In plaats van het veroorzaken van fibromyalgie, infecteren de bacteriën het lichaam en creëren de aandoening die we fibromyalgie noemen. In wezen zou dat betekenen dat fibromyalgie meer een reeks algemene symptomen is die door veel verschillende aandoeningen worden veroorzaakt dan een aandoening zelf.

Maar dit  is ook onwaarschijnlijk . Als bacteriën de symptomen van fibromyalgie veroorzaken, dan zou het mogelijk zijn om die symptomen te beheersen met antibiotica. Dit lijkt natuurlijk niet mogelijk te zijn. En de meeste artsen verwerpen dit idee.

De meest waarschijnlijke verklaring is dat infecties op de een of andere manier een reactie in het lichaam creëren die bijdraagt ​​aan iemand die fibromyalgie ontwikkelt.

Er zijn aanwijzingen dat er iets verandert in de hersenen van mensen met fibromyalgie. Het zenuwstelsel lijkt  extra gevoelig  te worden voor pijn. En het begint pijnsignalen langs de zenuwen door te geven zonder externe prikkels. En hoewel we niet met zekerheid kunnen zeggen dat dit de oorzaak is van fibromyalgie, lijkt het wel een rol te spelen in de reden waarom de aandoening pijn veroorzaakt.

De vraag is: spelen bacteriële infecties een rol bij het triggeren van deze overgevoeligheid?

We weten dat infecties kunnen leiden tot ontstekingen in het weefsel. En we weten dat ontsteking geassocieerd is met hogere niveaus van immuuncellen in het bloed. En deze afweercellen maken iets bekend als cytokines.

Cytokinen zijn eiwitten die een rol spelen bij het functioneel houden van het immuunsysteem. Maar cytokinen lijken ook een rol te spelen bij chronische pijnaandoeningen zoals fibromyalgie. De cytokines beginnen pijnreacties in het zenuwstelsel te veroorzaken. Na verloop van tijd kunnen deze pijnreacties overgevoeligheid veroorzaken.

Dit zou de verklaring kunnen zijn voor de reden waarom infectie lijkt te leiden tot fibromyalgie. Kortom, infecties produceren ontstekingen, wat leidt tot cytokines. Deze cytokines  veroorzaken pijnsignalen  en uiteindelijk overgevoeligheid van het zenuwstelsel.

En omdat het zenuwstelsel nu gevoeliger is voor pijn en op zichzelf pijnsignalen veroorzaakt, leidt het tot de wijdverspreide pijn van fibromyalgie. Dit is slechts een theorie en meer onderzoek is nodig. Maar het is een logische verklaring voor het verband tussen infectie en fibromyalgie.

Wat denk je ervan? Is uw fibromyalgie veroorzaakt door een infectie? Wat denk je dat de link is? Vertel ons in de reacties.

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