Fibromyalgi: en forferdelig og smertefull tilstand

Du har sikkert hørt om fibromyalgi, men du kan ikke vite hva det er. Fibromyalgi er en langvarig (kronisk) smerte tilstand som rammer 5 millioner eller flere amerikanere 18 år og eldre. Av ukjente årsaker er de fleste som er diagnostisert med fibromyalgi kvinner, selv om menn og gutter også kan bli påvirket. Personer med visse lidelser, som reumatoid artritt eller lupus, kan også ha fibromyalgi, noe som kan påvirke sykdomsforløpet og behandlingen.

Fibromyalgi kan i stor grad påvirke helse, trivsel og livskvalitet.

“Folk med fibromyalgi lider av alvorlig, hverdagslig smerte som sprer seg gjennom hele kroppen,” sier Dr. Leslie J. Crofford, en forsker ved Vanderbilt University som har støtte fra NIH. “Hans smerte blir ofte ledsaget av svekkende tretthet, søvn som ikke forfrisker dem og problemer med tenkning og minne.”

Kompleks diagnose

Folk med fibromyalgi ser ofte mange leger før de endelig får en diagnose. De viktigste symptomene, smerte og tretthet overlapper de med mange andre forhold, noe som kan komplisere diagnosen.

“For å gjøre ting mer utfordrende, er det ingen blodprøver eller røntgenstråler som er unormale hos mennesker med uorden,” sier Crofford. Uten en bestemt diagnostisk test kan noen leger spørre om pasientens smerte er ekte. “Selv venner, familie og medarbeidere kan ha problemer med å forstå personens symptomer.”

En lege kjent med fibromyalgi kan gjøre en diagnose basert på kriteriene fastsatt av American College of Rheumatology. De diagnostiske symptomene inkluderer en historie med generell smerte som varer mer enn 3 måneder og andre symptomer som tretthet. Når diagnosen utføres, vurderer leger antall områder i kroppen hvor pasienten hadde smerte i forrige uke og utelukker andre årsaker til sykdommen.

Fordi det ikke er helt forstått

Hva forårsaker fibromyalgi er ikke helt forstått. Mange faktorer bidrar sannsynligvis til.

“Vi vet at personer med fibromyalgi har forandringer i kommunikasjonen mellom kropp og hjerne,” sier Crofford. Disse endringene kan føre til at hjernen tolker visse følelser som smertefulle som ikke kan være irriterende for mennesker uten denne uorden.

Forskere har funnet flere gener som kan påvirke en persons risiko for å utvikle fibromyalgi. Stressfulle livshendelser kan også spille en rolle.

Fibromyalgi er ikke en progressiv sykdom, så det blir ikke verre over tid og kan til og med forbedre seg. Det er aldri dødelig og vil ikke skade leddene, musklene eller indre organer.

behandling

Medisiner kan bidra til å lindre noen, men ikke alle, av symptomene på fibromyalgi. “Farmakologiske behandlinger av seg selv resulterer ikke i remisjon eller kur av fibromyalgi,” sier Crofford. “Vi har lært at øvelsen kan fungere så godt eller bedre enn medisiner. I tillegg kan behandlinger som tai chi, yoga og kognitiv atferdsterapi også bidra til å redusere symptomene. “

Personer med fibromyalgi har ofte de beste resultatene når de behandles med flere terapier.

“Det er ekstremt viktig at helsepersonell hjelper pasienter med å forstå fibromyalgi og gir realistisk informasjon om behandlinger, med vekt på bruk av mosjon og annen fysisk terapi sammen med medisiner.”

Crofford sier. Crofford og hans kolleger undersøker om en behandling som kalles TENS (transkutan elektrisk nervestimulering) kan hjelpe folk med fibromyalgi til å trene mer komfortabelt og redusere smerte. Hun og andre lag finansiert av NIH leter også etter fibromyalgi markører i blodet som til slutt kan føre til mer spesifikke og effektive behandlinger.

Hvis du eller noen du kjenner, har fibromyalgi, sjekk boksen “klare alternativer” for tips om hvordan du reduserer effekten din.

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