Fibromialgia: el dolor que la sociedad no ve ni entiende

La fibromialgia fue reconocida como enfermedad por la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) en 1992. A día de hoy, la fibromialgia afecta al 4% de la población y en su mayoría, casi el 90%, son mujeres.

Se la conoce como la “enfermedad invisible” porque afecta a todas las partes blandas del aparato locomotor y no se puede diagnosticar fácilmente a través de pruebas médicas. La fibromialgia no se ve, no deja marcas en la piel ni produce heridas que otros puedan ver para identificarse. Es un dolor solitario, desesperante.

Sufrir fibromialgia es algo muy duro: no sé cómo despertaré hoy, si podré moverme, si podré reír o si solo tendré ganas de llorar… Lo que sí sé, es que yo no finjo: yo sufro una enfermedad crónica

De momento se desconoce todavía la etiología de esta enfermedad, ahora bien, lo que sí sabemos es que año a año son más las personas diagnosticadas, de ahí que se busque dar una intervención lo más globalizada posible, incluyendo cómo es lógico el aspecto biopsicosocial.

Por ello, hoy en nuestro espacio queremos darte unas pautas básicas para que puedas afrontar la enfermedad con fortaleza, mejorando tu calidad de vida en la medida que sea posible.

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Fibromialgia: la enfermedad real que no se ve

Cuando una persona no puede levantarse de la cama porque siente que “agujas ardientes” hieren sus articulaciones, no está fingiendo ni busca una excusa para no ir al trabajo.

Quien sufre fibromialgia debe sumar su propia enfermedad con la incomprensión social, con la sensación de sentirse invisible en un mundo que solo cree lo que ve.

El principal problema de la FM (fibromialgia) está en la controversia de si su origen es psicológico u orgánico. Estas serían las principales conclusiones que nos indican los expertos:

Posible origen de la fibromialgia

Es necesario aclarar en primer lugar que no existe evidencia médica que relacione la fibromialgia con una enfermedad psiquiátrica.

  • Algunos autores hablan de que cerca del 47% de los pacientes sufren ansiedad, no obstante, hay que tener en cuenta también que esta dimensión psicológica puede ser respuesta del propio dolor, de la propia enfermedad.
  • Según un trabajo publicado en la revista “Arthritis & Rheumatology” quienes sufren fibromialgia experimentan una mayor hipersensibilidad a la estimulación sensorial cotidiana.
  • Mediante resonancia magnética los investigadores descubrieron que ante un estímulo visual, táctil, olfativo o auditivo, las regiones de integración sensorial cerebrales sufren una sobreestimulación mayor de lo habitual.
  • Las personas con fibromialgia tienen un número mayor de fibras nerviosas sensoriales en sus vasos sanguíneos, de forma que todo estímulo o cambio de temperatura deriva en un dolor intenso.
dolor en la fibromialgia

Algo a tener en cuenta es que cualquier factor emocional va a incrementar la sensación de dolor en esas fibras nerviosas. Una situación puntual de estrés derivará en sobreestimulación y en dolor y, a su vez, la sensación de dolor y cansancio crónico aboca al paciente a la indefensión e incluso en depresión.

Caemos, por lo tanto, en un círculo vicioso donde una enfermedad de origen orgánico se ve aumentada por el factor psicológico. Por ello, vale la pena controlar la dimensión emocional para atenuar o al menos “controlar” el origen etiológico.

La depresión, la enfermedad del alma

Estrategias psicológicas para afrontar la fibromialgia

El dolor crónico forma parte de nuestra realidad social, siendo la fibromialgia (FM) una de sus principales causas. Ahora que ya tenemos claro que factores como el estrés o la tristeza van a incrementar la sensación de sufrimiento, es importante introducir una estrategias básicas de afrontamiento que nos puedan ayudar.

Hoy te has levantado, te has vestido y has podido salir a la calle. Nadie más entenderá tus logros, pero esos pequeños triunfos son importantes para ti y deben darte fuerzas: puedes ser más fuerte que tu enfermedad

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5 claves para obtener mejor calidad de vida

En primer lugar hemos de tener claro que unas mismas dimensiones no van a servirnos a todos. Debes encontrar aquellas estrategias que te van bien a ti de acuerdo a tu particularidad y necesidades. Para ello, prueba y selecciona tú mismo aquellas que te producen un mayor alivio.

  • Entiende tu enfermedad. Ello implica estar en contacto con especialistas, médicos y psicólogos. Necesitamos tratamientos multidisciplinares y cada uno te aportará todo el conocimiento de esta dolencia para que “comprendas” a tu enemigo. De este modo, estarás más seguro/a y prevenido/a.
  • Instaura una actitud positiva en tu vida. Sabemos que no es sencillo, pero en lugar de reaccionar ante el dolor es mejor aceptarlo y tratarlo, no deprimirnos. No dudes en hablar con personas que sufran lo mismo que tú, no te aísles ni guardes rencor a quienes te rodean.
  • Busca actividades que te permitan afrontar el estrés y la ansiedad: existen técnicas de relajación muy adecuadas que pueden ayudarte. El yoga, por su parte, también puede ser muy beneficioso.
  • Nunca pierdas el control de tu vida, no dejes que sea el dolor quien tenga te domine. Para ello, establece instantes de ocio cotidianos por pequeños que sean. Sal a caminar y no evites el contacto social.
  • Atiende tus emociones, tu pensamiento y tu lenguaje. Lo que pensamos y sentimos tiene una influencia directa sobre la enfermedad. Si nos decimos frases como “no voy a poder levantarme”, “esto no tiene solución” o “ya no tengo fuerzas”, incrementarás tu sufrimiento.

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