Episodes aigus de fibromyalgie: déclencheurs, symptômes et traitement

La fibromyalgie, un exemple du syndrome central de la douleur, est une maladie chronique caractérisée par des symptômes de douleur musculaire généralisée, de fatigue, de problèmes de mémoire et de sautes d’humeur. Comme dans de nombreuses maladies chroniques, les symptômes de la fibromyalgie peuvent apparaître et disparaître et varier en intensité.

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Symptômes de la fibromyalgie

Bien qu’une personne atteinte de fibromyalgie puisse présenter régulièrement certains symptômes, lorsque ceux-ci s’aggravent ou se manifestent plus fréquemment au cours d’une période donnée, on parle de période d’exacerbation ou d’épisode aigu.

“Un épisode est une aggravation ou une flambée de symptômes déjà existants”, explique le Dr Daniel Clauw, professeur d’anesthésiologie, de rhumatologie et de psychiatrie à l’Université du Michigan à Ann Arbor. “Les patients utilisent des modèles de temps différents pour ce qu’ils considèrent comme une épidémie, mais en général, ils présentent plusieurs jours ou plusieurs semaines d’exacerbation des symptômes. Un raccourci est considéré comme une diminution des symptômes qu’une personne atteinte de fibromyalgie peut s’attendre. “

Symptômes communs:

  • Douleur musculaire généralisée
  • Fatigue qui entrave les activités quotidiennes
  • Rigidité, surtout le matin ou après une longue période d’inactivité
  • Difficultés cognitives, qui incluent des problèmes de mémoire, de concentration et d’organisation
  • Troubles émotionnels, tels que anxiété, tristesse ou dépression
  • Problèmes de sommeil, tels que difficulté à s’endormir, se réveiller fréquemment ou se réveiller sans se sentir reposé

Bien que ces symptômes soient courants chez les personnes atteintes de fibromyalgie, chacun subit des exacerbations de manière différente.

“Les personnes atteintes de fibromyalgie ont différents épisodes aigus”, explique le Dr Clauw. “Une bonne façon de l’expliquer est que chaque personne atteinte de fibromyalgie a son talon d’Achille, le symptôme qui leur cause vraiment des problèmes. Lorsque la fibromyalgie s’aggrave, ce symptôme s’aggrave vraiment. “

Les symptômes prédominants d’une personne au cours d’un épisode aigu peuvent changer avec le temps.

“Quiconque a un épisode peut avoir une douleur de plus en plus forte à la hanche ou au dos”, explique le Dr Clauw. “Mais il y a 10 ans, cette même personne aurait pu avoir des crampes menstruelles ou des maux de tête comme son talon d’Achille. La nature de la fibromyalgie est qu’il s’agit d’un syndrome d’amplification de la douleur et que celle-ci peut muter. “

Déclencheurs de périodes d’exacerbation de la fibromyalgie

L’un des meilleurs moyens de prévenir un épisode consiste à déterminer ce qui pourrait le provoquer en premier lieu. Comme les symptômes, les déclencheurs de la fibromyalgie varient selon les personnes, mais peuvent inclure:

  • Stress physique ou psychologique
  • Changements de température et / ou de climat
  • Changements hormonaux
  • Voyage et / ou changements d’horaire
  • Modifications dans le traitement
  • Régime alimentaire
  • Le manque de sommeil

“Nous savons que tout type de stress, non seulement psychologique, mais aussi physique, immunitaire ou tout ce qui interrompt la routine normale du corps peut déclencher une épidémie”, a déclaré le Dr Clauw. “Quoi qu’il en soit, d’un accident de voiture à une opération ou à un autre type d’événement stressant de la vie peut aggraver les symptômes. Les éruptions cutanées peuvent également être dues à des facteurs comportementaux tels que le manque de sommeil, l’interruption soudaine de l’exercice ou le dépassement de l’activité. “

Certaines exacerbations sont inévitables et certains déclencheurs sont incontrôlables. Vous pouvez essayer d’identifier ce qui aggrave les symptômes de la fibromyalgie en notant les activités, ce que vous mangez, votre sommeil et l’impact de tous ces facteurs sur les symptômes. Après avoir ciblé ces facteurs pendant plusieurs semaines, vous constaterez peut-être une tendance. Cela vous aidera à savoir comment gérer au mieux les actions pouvant déclencher une épidémie.

Traitement d’un épisode aigu de fibromyalgie

En dépit de vos efforts, la fibromyalgie peut parfois s’aggraver. Bien que vous souhaitiez prendre une pilule magique, il n’existe aucun traitement contre la fibromyalgie pendant un épisode.

“La vérité est que nous sommes beaucoup mieux à même de prévenir les exacerbations que de les traiter”, a déclaré le Dr Clauw. “Il n’y a pas de médicament de secours pour la fibromyalgie. Les médicaments approuvés prennent des semaines à commencer à fonctionner et les analgésiques comme les opioïdes ne servent pas à beaucoup de gens. “

En l’absence de médicaments efficaces, Clauw suggère que vous examiniez les activités auxquelles vous participez et qui pourraient affecter les symptômes.

“Beaucoup de personnes atteintes de fibromyalgie ont tendance à surcharger leurs choses quand elles se sentent bien”, explique le Dr Clauw. “Apprendre à suivre le rythme peut vous aider à sortir du cycle de faire trop quand vous vous sentez bien et à payer plus tard quand la fibromyalgie s’aggrave.”

Bien que vous soyez peut-être réticent à ajouter quelque chose à votre routine si vous êtes déjà fatigué et que vous ressentez de la douleur, les thérapies pour le corps et l’esprit peuvent être très utiles pour vous remonter le moral et soulager la douleur. Essayez des thérapies complémentaires telles que la méditation, la respiration profonde et des exercices comprenant l’étirement et la relaxation, comme le yoga.

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