En studie ved University of Oviedo knytter fibromyalgi med kronisk tretthetssyndrom

Forskningen, i samarbeid med forskere fra Johns Hopkins University og NIH i Washington, bekrefter eksistensen av et sett av undertrykte gener forbundet med tre hovedgenetiske veier.

Juan Luis Fernández Marténez

Forskning utviklet av et team fra University of Oviedo, i samarbeid med forskere fra Johns Hopkins University og NIH i Washington, har  knyttet fibromyalgi med kronisk utmattelsessyndrom.

Los estudios han proporcionado una firma genética a pequeña escala y han confirmado la existencia de un conjunto de genes reprimidos asociados a tres vías genéticas principales, con «gran sentido biológico» y que la conectan con el síndrome de fatiga crónica, ha informado la institución académica asturiana en un comunicado. La fibromialgia está considerada como un síndrome que puede causar una sensibilidad creciente al dolor, fatiga, rigidez muscular, problemas de sueño, posibles pérdidas de memoria y concentración, dolores de cabeza o problemas digestivos, informa la agencia EFE.

Symptomene er varierte og deres diagnose er komplisert og kan forveksles med kronisk tretthetssyndrom, revmatoid artritt eller til og med multippel sklerose. I tillegg er det ingen konsensus i diagnosen, og kriteriene, som har en høy grad av subjektivitet, har blitt endret gjennom årene. Denne vanskeligheten har forårsaket at det noen ganger er kjent som “den usynlige smerten”, og at de som lider det, føler seg misforstått, med en tilstand av permanent frustrasjon som ofte forverrer sin tilstand. I tillegg kan  fibromyalgi bli kalt en “kvinnesykdom”, siden det statistisk påvirker kvinner mer enn menn. Årsakene er ukjente og er forbundet med ulike hendelser som inkluderer virusinfeksjoner, kirurgiske operasjoner, leveranser, affektive hendelser og til og med misbruk. 

De oppnådde resultatene kommer fra modelleringen av en genetisk studie utført i en kohort på 28 kvinner diagnostisert med fibromyalgi mellom 28 og 55 år, sammenlignet med friske frivillige mellom 28 og 51 år. Studiene gir en liten genetisk signatur skala sammensatt av 57 gener for diagnose.

Analysene viste at de tre viktigste endrede genetiske veiene er relatert til aktiveringen av leverstellatceller (hepatiske adipocytter) som er indikative for lesjoner i dette organet; oksidativ fosforylering og respiratoriske patologier av COPD-type (obstruktiv lungesykdom). Selv om disse resultatene er foreløpige og vanskelige å tolke, ser det ut til å bekrefte en viktig rolle signalveien til glutamat, en nevrotransmitter med stor betydning for kronisk tretthet og depresjon.

De presenterer også et forandret uttrykk for gener relatert til demping av metabolismen og de inflammatoriske veiene forbundet med interferon alfa, et cytokin involvert i reguleringen av immunresponsen mot infeksjoner. Professor Juan Luis Fernández-Martínez understreker betydningen av translasjonsforskning hvis resultatene påvirker medisinene som pasientene mottar, noe som han sier, de amerikanske lagene han samarbeider med er svært innarbeidet.

Fernández-Martínez har uttalt at «i fravær av klinisk bekreftelse», forbinder disse resultatene fibromyalgi med kronisk utmattelsessyndrom, så målet skulle nå være å studere forskjellene mellom dem, samt de mekanismer som er vanlige og sammenligne dem med endrede veier i multippel sklerose. Ifølge forskerne har disse resultatene ikke bare en diagnostisk verdi, men tillater også søket etter nye terapeutiske mål  og omplassering av legemidler som er i stand til å optimalisere de forandrede gener og minimere bivirkninger.

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