As 10 diretrizes para o enfrentamento da síndrome das pernas inquietas

A Síndrome das Pernas Inquietas (SPI) é um distúrbio frequente e crônico. Consiste de um impulso incontrolável de mover as pernas associadas a sensações desagradáveis, não dolorosas, frequentemente descritas como formigamento ou perfurações, por exemplo. Estes são exacerbados pelo repouso, enquanto o movimento produz uma sensação de alívio. A etiologia desse distúrbio é desconhecida, embora a insuficiência de ferro cerebral e as alterações na neurotransmissão da dopamina sejam consideradas possíveis causas.

Segundo a Associação Espanhola de Síndrome das Pernas Inquietas (AESPI), aproximadamente 80% das pessoas com essa condição realizam movimentos periódicos das extremidades durante o sono. É um tremor que ocorre com uma frequência de 20 a 30 segundos durante a noite e, geralmente, causando contínuas interrupções do sono.

Uma das maiores queixas dos pacientes com SPI é como sua qualidade de vida é reduzida, diante da privação crônica do sono, causando fadiga, insônia muitas vezes, e até uma diminuição na capacidade de concentração durante o dia, além de afetar sua saúde. Estado de espirito.

CARACTERÍSTICAS DA DOENÇA

Em entrevista ao Infosalus, a Dra. Pilar Rubio, do Serviço de Neurofisiologia Clínica do Hospital Universitário i Politécnico de La Fe, em Valência, aponta que o SPI pode ser apresentado em qualquer idade, tanto na infância quanto na idade adulta; embora avise que predomina a partir da terceira ou quarta década de vida, e sua frequência aumenta com o aumento da idade.

“O distúrbio pode ocorrer espontaneamente ou estar associado a outras patologias, entre as quais a deficiência de ferro ou insuficiência renal terminal. Também tem sido associada a processos como diabetes mellitus, distúrbios reumatológicos, bem como condições neurológicas, incluindo a doença de Parkinson. Em condições gastrintestinais, como doença celíaca e doença de Crohn, essa associação também foi descrita ”, acrescenta o especialista.

Por sua vez, indica que os sintomas das pernas inquietas podem ser desencadeados pelo uso de algumas drogas, como os antidepressivos. Além disso, durante a gravidez e especialmente durante os últimos meses, até 20% das mulheres desenvolvem SPI. Após o parto, os sintomas geralmente desaparecem. No entanto, há uma relação clara entre o número de gestações e as chances de desenvolver SPI crônica.

Por outro lado, Rubio afirma que é um distúrbio que pode aparecer espontaneamente, embora 40% dos pacientes tenham história familiar positiva de pernas inquietas, “ou seja, tem um fator hereditário, sendo o padrão de herança autossômica dominante. ”

O diagnóstico é feito com uma história clínica adequada, acrescenta o especialista. Não são necessários estudos especiais, a menos que se suspeite de uma associação com outros distúrbios do sono, como movimentos periódicos das pernas. “Nesse caso, o diagnóstico seria feito com polissonografia”, acrescenta.

Sobre o tratamento, o especialista da equipe de Neurofisiologia Clínica do Hospital La Fe de Valência aponta que é sintomático e personalizado. “Atualmente, uma ampla gama de medicamentos está disponível a partir do ferro associado à vitamina C, drogas dopaminérgicas, gabapentina, benzodiazepínicos, entre outros que melhoram os sintomas”, diz ele.

DICAS PARA SUPERAR TI

Portanto, da AESPI aconselho a lidar com a doença, além do tratamento farmacológico:

1  .- Manter horários regulares de sono, ir para a cama e levantar-se ao mesmo tempo e ser capaz de ter um ambiente de sono tranquilo e confortável.

2  .- Evite o consumo de substâncias excitantes, tipo de cafeína e álcool e especialmente à noite.

3  .- Faça exercícios suaves, não extenuantes, à tarde, como alongamento ou relaxamento, por exemplo, bem como massagem suave nas pernas associada a banhos quentes e frios.

4.  -Evite certos medicamentos que podem piorar os sintomas (anti-histamínicos, alguns sedativos que bloqueiam a dopamina e certos antidepressivos)

5  .- Fale abertamente sobre o SPI com a família e amigos.

6  .- Não lute contra a pintura. Se você tentar suprimir a necessidade de se mover, seus sintomas podem piorar. Um bom programa de exercícios pode ajudar o corpo a lidar melhor com a doença. O exercício regular pode manter a flexibilidade, promover uma boa postura, manter músculos fortes e articulações ágeis.

7  .- Escreva um diário de sonho. Mantenha um registro de medicamentos e estratégias que ajudam ou aliviam sua batalha com o RLS e compartilhe com seu médico.

8  .- Fique mais alto. Você pode achar mais confortável elevar a mesa ou as prateleiras a uma altura que permita que você fique em pé enquanto trabalha ou lê.

9  .- Ocupar a mente. Se você mantiver ativo, os sintomas da RLS poderão diminuir.

10  .- Comece e termine o dia com alongamento. Terapias complementares podem ajudar fisicamente e emocionalmente com a SPI. Tais como yoga, tai chi, musicoterapia e acupuntura. De fato, alguns são oferecidos dentro do processo de reabilitação do SPI.

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