Alta tasa de síndrome de piernas inquietas en fibromialgia: estudio reciente

Un estudio en la edición del 15 de octubre de la  revista Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine encontró que los adultos con fibromialgia tenían una prevalencia mucho más alta y el riesgo de síndrome de piernas inquietas que los controles sanos. El estudio sugiere que el tratamiento del SPI pueden mejorar el sueño y la calidad de vida en personas con fibromialgia.

resultado de la imagen

Los resultados muestran que la prevalencia del síndrome de piernas inquietas fue de alrededor de 10 veces mayor en el grupo de fibromialgia (33 por ciento) que entre los controles (3,1 por ciento). Después de los ajustes estadísticos para posibles factores de confusión tales como edad, sexo y etnia, los participantes con fibromialgia eran 11 veces más probabilidades que los controles tienen RLS (odds ratio = 11,2). Como era de esperar, una considerable interrupción del sueño fue reportado por los participantes con fibromialgia utilizando el Índice de Calidad del Sueño de Pittsburgh, el Índice de Gravedad El insomnio y la Escala de Somnolencia Epworth. En el grupo de fibromialgia estos problemas de sueño eran más grave entre las personas que también tenían SPI.

“La interrupción del sueño es común en la fibromialgia, ya menudo difícil de tratar”, dijo el autor contribuyente, el Dr. Nathaniel F. Watson, profesor asociado de neurología de la Universidad de Washington en Seattle, Washington. “Se desprende de este estudio que una parte sustancial de interrupción del sueño en la fibromialgia es debido al síndrome de las piernas inquietas “.

. El equipo de investigación dirigido por el Dr. Watson y dirigido por el doctor Mari Viola-Saltzman del Centro Médico de la Universidad de Loyola en Maywood, Illinois, estudió a 172 personas con fibromialgia que tenían una edad media de 50 años; 93 por ciento eran mujeres. Fueron comparados con 63 controles sanos que tenían una edad media de 41 años.

La fibromialgia se identificó por su propio informe o revisión de los registros médicos, y se confirmó en el examen de acuerdo con las directrices publicadas con respecto a la presencia de dolor que es crónica y generalizada. El dolor fue evaluado por informe subjetiva y por medición objetiva con un dolorímetro, un indicador cargado por resorte que se utiliza para aplicar tipos estandarizados de la presión a licitar puntos en los brazos y las piernas.

Según el Instituto Nacional de Artritis y Enfermedades Musculoesqueléticas y de la Piel, la fibromialgia puede causar dolor y la fatiga significativa. Se estima que afecta a 5 millones de estadounidenses mayores de 18 años, y entre el 80 y el 90 por ciento de los diagnosticados con fibromialgia son mujeres. Las causas de la fibromialgia sigue siendo desconocido.

síndrome de las piernas inquietas se diagnostica mediante un cuestionario validado autoadministrado. RLS es un trastorno del movimiento relacionado con el sueño que implica una necesidad de mover las piernas, que por lo general se acompaña o causadas por sensaciones incómodas y desagradables en las piernas. Este impulso comienza o empeora durante los períodos de descanso o inactividad, se resuelve parcial o totalmente por el movimiento, y se empeora o se produce sólo por la noche. RLS se produce entre 1,5 y dos veces más frecuente en las mujeres que en los hombres.

Watson señaló que el tratamiento del síndrome de piernas inquietas puede ser una de las claves para reducir la fatiga y mejorar la calidad de vida en personas con fibromialgia. RLS a menudo puede ser tratado con éxito con un medicamento como pramipexol o ropinirol.

“Ya que el síndrome de piernas inquietas es una enfermedad tratable, el diagnóstico y el tratamiento del SPI en los pacientes con fibromialgia tiene el potencial de mejorar su sueño”, dijo Watson.

Según los autores, la naturaleza transversal del estudio no permitió un examen de la causalidad. Sin embargo, varios aspectos de los dos síndromes sugieren un solapamiento lógico. Ambos trastornos implican anormalidades sensoriales, y una patofisiología similar del sistema que regula el neurotransmisor dopamina se ha propuesto para ambos síndromes. Además, síndrome de piernas inquietas puede ser inducida por los antidepresivos, que son un tratamiento común para el dolor y la depresión en la fibromialgia. Además, el ejercicio se ha demostrado que mejora los síntomas de ambos síndromes.

El estudio fue apoyado por el Instituto Nacional de Artritis y Enfermedades Musculoesqueléticas y de la Piel de los Institutos Nacionales de Salud y por la Asociación Nacional de Investigación de la fibromialgia.

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