Un estudio de la Universidad de Oviedo vincula la fibromialgia con el síndrome de fatiga crónica

La investigación, en colaboración con científicos de la Universidad Johns Hopkins y del NIH de Washington, confirma la existencia de un conjunto de genes reprimidos asociados a tres vías genéticas principales

Juan Luis Fernández Martínez

Una investigación desarrollada por un equipo de la Universidad de Oviedo, en colaboración con científicos de la Universidad Johns Hopkins y del NIH de Washington, ha relacionado la fibromialgia con el síndrome de fatiga crónica.

Los estudios han proporcionado una firma genética a pequeña escala y han confirmado la existencia de un conjunto de genes reprimidos asociados a tres vías genéticas principales, con «gran sentido biológico» y que la conectan con el síndrome de fatiga crónica, ha informado la institución académica asturiana en un comunicado. La fibromialgia está considerada como un síndrome que puede causar una sensibilidad creciente al dolor, fatiga, rigidez muscular, problemas de sueño, posibles pérdidas de memoria y concentración, dolores de cabeza o problemas digestivos, informa la agencia EFE.

Los síntomas son variados y su diagnóstico es complicado, y puede confundirse con el síndrome de fatiga crónica, la artritis reumatoide o incluso la esclerosis múltiple. Además, no existe consenso en su diagnóstico y los criterios, que poseen un alto grado de subjetividad, han ido cambiado a lo largo de los años. Dicha dificultad ha originado que a veces se le conozca como «el dolor invisible» y que quienes la sufren se sientan incomprendidos, con un estado de frustración permanente que suele agravar su condición. Además, la fibromialgia podría ser denominada una «enfermedad en femenino», dado que estadísticamente afecta más a las mujeres que a los hombres. Sus causas son desconocidas y se asocian a diferentes eventos que incluyen infecciones víricas, operaciones quirúrgicas, partos, eventos afectivos e incluso abusos. 

Los resultados obtenidos provienen de la modelización de un estudio genético realizado en una cohorte de 28 mujeres diagnosticadas con fibromialgia de entre 28 y 55 años, en comparación con voluntarias sanas y edades comprendidas entre los 28 y 51. Los estudios proporcionan una firma genética a pequeña escala compuesta por 57 genes para su diagnóstico.

Los análisis mostraron que las tres vías genéticas alteradas más importantes están relacionadas con la activación de células estrelladas hepáticas (adipocitos hepáticos) que son indicativas de lesiones en este órgano; fosforilación oxidativa y patologías respiratorias tipo EPOC (enfermedad obstructiva pulmonar). Aunque estos resultados son preliminares y difíciles de interpretar, parece confirmarse un papel importante de la vía de señalización del glutamato, un neurotransmisor con gran importancia en la fatiga crónica y en la depresión.

También presentan una expresión alterada genes relacionados con la atenuación de la tasa metabólica y de las vías inflamatorias asociadas al Interferón alfa, una citocina implicada en la regulación de la respuesta inmunitaria contra infecciones. El profesor Juan Luis Fernández-Martínez subraya la importancia de la investigación traslacional cuyos resultados impacten en la medicina que reciben las y los pacientes, algo que, asegura, los equipos estadounidenses con los que colabora tienen muy incorporado.

Fernández-Martínez ha afirmado que, «a falta de una confirmación clínica», estos resultados conectan la fibromialgia con el síndrome de fatiga crónica, por lo que el objetivo ahora pasaría por estudiar las diferencias entre ambos, así como los mecanismos que son comunes y compararlas con las vías alteradas en la Esclerosis Múltiple. Según los investigadores,estos resultados no solo poseen un valor diagnóstico, sino que también permitirán la búsqueda de nuevas dianas terapéuticas y el reposicionamiento de fármacos que sean capaces de regular óptimamente los genes alterados y que minimicen los efectos secundarios.

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