«La fibromyalgie est en grande partie une maladie invisible, car elle présente des symptômes difficiles à expliquer aux amis et à la famille»

«La fibromyalgie est en grande partie une maladie invisible, car elle présente des symptômes difficiles à expliquer aux amis et à la famille»

Q Qu’est-ce que la fibromyalgie? 
R La fibromyalgie est une maladie chronique qui provoque des douleurs, des raideurs et une sensibilité des muscles, des tendons et des articulations. Il se caractérise également par des troubles du sommeil, de la fatigue, de la fatigue, de l’anxiété, de la dépression et des altérations des fonctions intestinales. Il s’agit d’une forme de rhumatisme extra-articulaire généralisé qui se caractérise cliniquement par des douleurs musculo-squelettiques chroniques, associées à des modifications du schéma de sommeil normal, à la fatigue et à des altérations de la personnalité ou psychologiques.

Q Quelle est son origine? 
R C’est une entité d’étiologie idiopathique inconnue, mais il existe des facteurs prédisposants tels que le sexe féminin, l’âge, la race, les facteurs émotionnels, les antécédents familiaux et la condition physique. Des déclencheurs possibles ont également été décrits, tels que le stress émotionnel post-traumatique aigu, le stress lié au travail, les lésions musculo-squelettiques, une intervention chirurgicale antérieure, une maladie grave et une anxiété ou une dépression réactive.

Q Combien de personnes cela affecte-t-il? 
R On estime qu’elle touche 2 à 4% de la population, étant plus fréquente chez les femmes (prévalence de 4,2%) que chez les hommes (prévalence de 0,2%).

Q Comment savoir si vous avez la fibromyalgie? 
R La fibromyalgie peut être considérée comme une condition d’imitation, car ses principaux symptômes (fatigue et douleur généralisées) sont très similaires à celles d’autres maladies. Son diagnostic est donc parfois compliqué.

Q Quels sont tous vos symptômes? 
R Les principales sont la présence de douleurs diffuses dans une grande partie du corps, la fatigue chronique, les raideurs articulaires et les contractures musculaires. Cependant, il existe d’autres symptômes tels que douleur concentrée dans certaines zones, trouble du sommeil qualitatif et quantitatif, maux de tête, fourmillements et enflure des mains, miction accrue, règles plus douloureuses chez certaines femmes, problèmes gastro-intestinaux, engourdissements des pieds et des mains, vertiges, dépression, anxiété, sautes d’humeur, manque de concentration et perte de mémoire.

Q Comment est-il diagnostiqué? 
R Une anamnèse est réalisée pour évaluer la douleur et la raideur articulaire, ainsi que la faiblesse musculaire, l’asthénie et le sommeil non réparateur. Au niveau du laboratoire, 30% des patients atteints de fibromyalgie ont des antigènes antinucléaires positifs.
Actuellement, des critères majeurs et des critères mineurs sont établis, nécessitant la présence de 3 critères principaux et de 9 critères mineurs. Les principaux critères sont la douleur généralisée de plus de 3 mois d’évolution, la douleur à 6 des 18 points spécifiques du corps situés le long de la colonne vertébrale, des coudes, des genoux et des hanches et l’absence de maladie concomitante à l’origine de la fibromyalgie. Les critères mineurs sont l’intrusion d’ondes alpha dans l’électroencéphalogramme pendant le sommeil, le sommeil non réparateur, la fatigue nocturne et la raideur matinale, la fatigue quotidienne et la fatigue, la sensation subjective d’inflammation ou de paresthésies, l’aggravation du froid, le stress activité et amélioration avec repos, traitement thermique et physique, céphalées chroniques et troubles fonctionnels intestinaux.

Q La maladie est-elle perçue pour les autres? 
Une fibromyalgie est en grande partie une maladie invisible. Il est donc particulièrement difficile de décrire pour les amis et la famille, car la gravité de leurs symptômes varie d’un jour à l’autre. De ce fait, il y a une grande affectation au niveau de la vie socio-familière.

Q Comment est-il traité? 
A Le traitement de la fibromyalgie tente d’atténuer certains de ses symptômes et d’améliorer sa qualité de vie, bien qu’il n’existe actuellement aucun traitement curatif. Les thérapies les plus utilisées sont l’éducation du patient, la thérapie cognitivo-comportementale, l’exercice physique et la physiothérapie.
La physiothérapie est d’une importance vitale: le développement de programmes d’exercice physique modéré, d’hydrothérapie et d’entraînement proprioceptif est présenté comme le traitement le plus efficace pour soulager la douleur et améliorer l’équilibre musculaire et articulaire. Idéalement, le patient atteint de fibromyalgie devrait être traité au sein d’une équipe multidisciplinaire composée d’un rhumatologue, d’un neurologue, d’un psychologue, d’un physiothérapeute et d’un ergothérapeute. La fibromyalgie fait de la vie un défi quotidien, mais elle apporte également des avantages inattendus, comme apprendre à être reconnaissante des petites beautés quotidiennes de la vie.

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