Une étude a révélé que les personnes atteintes de fibromyalgie pouvaient également être atteintes du TDAH

Si vous avez la fibromyalgie, vous voudrez peut-être que votre médecin vous examine pour le trouble d’hyperactivité avec déficit de l’attention (TDAH).

C’est le message d’une étude présentée lors de la réunion annuelle de l’American Academy of Pain Management en avril 2018. Il a constaté un taux de co-occurrence étonnamment élevé de ces affections.

Fibromyalgie: douleur chronique et plus

Le syndrome de la fibromyalgie (FMS) est un trouble douloureux chronique. En plus des douleurs musculo-squelettiques, elle est associée à de nombreux autres symptômes, tels que fatigue chronique, troubles du sommeil, vertiges, sensibilité à la lumière, etc.

De nombreuses personnes ont également du mal à penser ou à se souvenir, un symptôme appelé «brouillard fibro».

D’autres maladies peuvent apparaître pendant le voyage

La fibromyalgie n’est pas bien comprise, mais les chercheurs savent qu’elle est souvent accompagnée d’autres conditions médicales. Ceux qui sont connus incluent la dépression, l’anxiété, la cystite interstitielle (une affection de la vessie) et le syndrome du côlon irritable.

C’est là qu’intervient cette étude. Des chercheurs de l’Université de Pretoria en Afrique du Sud ont commencé à noter que certains adultes atteints de fibromyalgie souffraient de formes extrêmes de déclin cognitif et d’inattention. Ils se sont demandé si cela pouvait aussi indiquer une condition coexistante plutôt qu’un symptôme de la maladie.

Roland van Rensburg, un médecin universitaire, s’est demandé si les personnes atteintes de fibromyalgie présentant des symptômes plus extrêmes de trouble fibreux pourraient effectivement souffrir de TDAH non diagnostiqué.

“Dans les deux cas, les patients ont du mal à penser, à se souvenir, à se concentrer ou à maintenir leur attention, ce qui est souvent appelé déficience cognitive ou déficience cognitive”, a-t-il déclaré.

Ce que l’étude Fibro-ADHD a trouvé

Dans cette étude, plus de 100 personnes atteintes de fibromyalgie ont été examinées pour le TDAH chez l’adulte à l’aide d’un questionnaire de dépistage développé par l’Organisation mondiale de la santé (OMS).

Les éléments de cet outil de sélection de 18 questions incluent les requêtes suivantes:

  • À quelle fréquence commettez-vous des erreurs d’inattention lorsque vous devez travailler sur un projet ennuyeux ou difficile?
  • À quelle fréquence vous perdez-vous ou avez-vous du mal à trouver des objets à la maison ou au travail?
  • Lorsque vous avez une tâche qui demande beaucoup de réflexion, à quelle fréquence évitez-vous ou différez-vous le début?

Les participants ont également eu leur cognition évaluée.

Près de la moitié des participants avaient les deux conditions

Les chercheurs ont découvert que 45% des personnes atteintes de fibromyalgie étaient positives au TDAH chez l’adulte.

La plupart des personnes atteintes de TDAH, à un certain niveau, savaient qu’elles avaient un problème: elles présentaient un nombre plus élevé de troubles cognitifs que celles qui n’en souffraient pas.

Les résultats de cette étude ont également été publiés dans la revue   Pain Medicine  en novembre 2017.

La dopamine est le lien probable

La connexion entre les deux maladies peut probablement être trouvée dans le dysfonctionnement sous-jacent du cerveau qui semble causer chaque condition.

“Le FMS semble être causé par la dérégulation des neurotransmetteurs, en particulier de la dopamine et de la sérotonine, et les anomalies de ces neurotransmetteurs sont également impliqués dans le développement du TDAH”, explique le Dr van Rensburg. “Le lien entre les deux semble résider dans les problèmes sous-jacents des neurotransmetteurs.”

Un symptôme très agaçant

Les chercheurs soulignent que les problèmes de concentration et d’attention rencontrés par les personnes atteintes de ces deux problèmes peuvent être très importants pour les patients. Ces problèmes sont parfois plus invalidants que la douleur chronique, notent-ils dans l’étude.

Cependant, de nombreux médecins et chercheurs ont tendance à ignorer ces symptômes, disent-ils.

Demandez à votre médecin pour un test de dépistage

Les chercheurs recommandent que, si vous souffrez de fibromyalgie, vous fassiez un test de TDAH chez l’adulte. “L’impact significatif du TDAH chez l’adulte … indique probablement que tous les patients atteints de FMS devraient subir un test de TDAH chez les adultes comorbides”, a conclu l’étude.

Votre fournisseur de soins primaires peut administrer le questionnaire de dépistage de l’OMS. Si votre résultat est positif, un neurologue ou un psychiatre vous évaluera avant de recevoir un diagnostic officiel.

Les stratégies et les traitements peuvent aider

Selon l’association des enfants et des adultes ayant un trouble de déficit de l’attention / hyperactivité, il existe des stratégies que les personnes atteintes de TDAH peuvent utiliser pour compenser certains de leurs problèmes cognitifs.

Certains d’entre eux incluent l’organisation systématique de votre espace de travail pour réduire les distractions ou diviser chaque tâche en petites étapes et vous récompenser en les complétant.

Les adultes atteints de TDAH bénéficient généralement d’une thérapie cognitivo-comportementale ou engagent un entraîneur personnel pour les aider à se fixer des objectifs réalistes.

Les médicaments comme les stimulants ou les antidépresseurs peuvent aider à traiter le TDAH. Van Rensburg note que certaines études de cas suggèrent que le Ritalin (méthylphénidate), un psychostimulant, améliore non seulement les symptômes cognitifs, mais semble également être bénéfique pour la douleur de la fibromyalgie. Des essais cliniques sont nécessaires pour confirmer cela, mais vous voudrez peut-être parler à votre médecin de ce médicament.

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