Dos tribunales reconocen la fibromialgia como principal causa para adquirir la incapacidad permanente absoluta

La fibromialgia no suele ser la primera causa para conceder una incapacidad permanente a los trabajadores que la padecen. Uno de los argumentos más utilizados en este tipo de procesos judiciales es que “no existen suficientes parámetros para medir el dolor, por ese motivo, para que la reconozcan en un juicio suele ir acompañada de trastornos en la salud mental”, sostiene Mª José Iglesias Toro, abogada laboralista.

El Hospital San Juan de Dios del Aljarafe cierra 2013 con nueve donaciones y 95.000 pacientes de Urgencias

© eldiario.es El Hospital San Juan de Dios del Aljarafe cierra 2013 con nueve donaciones y 95.000 pacientes de Urgencias

Ahora, el Tribunal Superior de Justicia de Canarias recoge en una sentencia dos puntos sobre esta patología que no son habituales en las resoluciones de incapacidad: constata que la fibromialgia es la primera causa para conceder la incapacidad permanente absoluta a una trabajadora y además, el tribunal acepta los informes que constatan el dolor crónico que padece. “Algo poco habitual en este tipo de juicios, ya que uno de los argumentos más utilizados por la Seguridad Social es que el dolor es subjetivo y no constituye una base para acreditar que existe invalidez, explica Iglesias a eldiario.es.

Para que un tribunal falle a favor de la incapacidad permanente absoluta –aquella que no permite desempeñar ninguna función laboral– el afectado debe presentar “lesiones muy acentuadas acompañadas de una depresión crónica y de larga evolución”, subraya la abogada. Este es el caso de Ana (nombre ficticio), camarera en un restaurante. Tras un proceso de incapacidad temporal derivado de un diagnóstico de fibromialgia, inició el trámite para conseguir la incapacidad permanente. El Equipo de Valoraciones de Incapacidades (EVI) de la Seguridad Social, le denegó la solicitud.

La empleada demandó al Instituto Nacional de la Seguridad Social (INSS) en un juzgado de primera instancia y la sala falló parcialmente a su favor concediéndole la incapacidad permanente total y una pensión del 55% de su base reguladora. No obstante, Ana recurrió la sentencia y solicitó al TSJ de Canarias que se incluyeran en el proceso las pruebas periciales que le diagnostican, además de fibromialgia, síndrome de fatiga crónica, ansiedad y vértigos.

Los expertos subrayan que una de las muestras para medir la enfermedad es el dolor, y para ello se tienen en cuenta 18 puntos que se reparten de forma simétrica por todo el cuerpo. Algunos se encuentran en la parte inferior del cráneo, pasando por las cervicales, escápulas, costillas y las rodillas. La confirmación de once puntos de dolor supone el diagnóstico de la enfermedad y debe haber al menos 14 puntos identificados para obtener la incapacidad permanente.

Limitaciones en la vida laboral

En el caso de Ana, se confirman los 18 puntos de dolor. El TSJ admite la prueba pericial que acredita su diagnóstico. La sentencia recoge que para determinar una incapacidad permanente absoluta habría que valorar las limitaciones que existen en la actividad laboral en vez de las lesiones que se padecen. Incluso el propio EVI –que denegó en un primer momento la petición de invalidez– acreditó que la afectada sufría mareos, náuseas y depresión.

“Habrá invalidez absoluta siempre que haya unas condiciones demostrables que inhabiliten para cualquier trabajo que tenga una retribución ordinaria dentro del ámbito laboral”, constata la resolución. Esta incapacidad no permite desempeñar ninguna función laboral al no poder garantizar un mínimo de “rendimiento, eficacia y profesionalidad”, a diferencia de la incapacidad permanente total, la cual no inhabilita al trabajador para el ejercicio de otras profesiones y es la más habitual en este tipo de procedimientos judiciales.

La sentencia del TSJ declara la incapacidad permanente absoluta de la trabajadora. Sostiene que los síntomas descritos son suficientes como para “limitar a la empleada para el desarrollo en condiciones aceptables de todo tipo de trabajo o profesión” y condena a la Seguridad Social a pagarle el 100% de su sueldo con las mejoras y revalorizaciones que correspondan desde febrero de 2017, fecha en que se inició el proceso judicial. 

El caso de Mario (nombre ficticio) es similar. Era autónomo y se dedicaba al transporte de mudanzas. Le diagnosticaron fibromialgia con la acreditación de los 18 puntos de dolor, además de síndrome de fatiga crónica y trastorno del sueño.

El trabajador pidió la tramitación del expediente de incapacidad permanente, pero el EVI no se la concedió por “no presentar reducciones anatómicas o funcionales que disminuyan o anulen su capacidad laboral”. Todo ello a pesar de que dos informes de dos hospitales de Madrid y Barcelona acreditaban las patologías que impedían a Mario desempeñar su trabajo con normalidad.

Mario también demandó a la Seguridad Social. En su caso, el juzgado de primera instancia le concedió la incapacidad permanente absoluta y ante el recurso interpuesto por la SS.SS, el TSJ de Madrid ha vuelto a fallar a favor del empleado, concluyendo que “las limitaciones físicas le incapacitan para su profesión”. Además, la institución tendrá que pagarle el 100% de su base reguladora.

La justicia recalca en el proceso que existe jurisprudencia que considera la fibromialgia como secuela invalidante en grado absoluto o total, de ahí que, en este caso, la valoración realizada por la jueza de primera instancia se tenga en cuenta en el TSJ, ya que este tipo de patologías se suele analizar de manera individual.

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