Le cannabis mène à la « rémission complète » de la maladie de Crohn sans effets secondaires, selon une nouvelle étude

La lutte contre les symptômes douloureux des maladies inflammatoires chroniques de l’intestin (MICI) est devenue quotidienne chez un bon nombre de personnes. Le terme MICI couvre les maladies inflammatoires de l’intestin comme la colite, le syndrome du côlon irritable et la maladie de Crohn.

 Le canabis mène à la "rémission complète" de la maladie de Crohn

En France, la fréquence de la maladie de Crohn est variable selon les régions. On y dénombre 120 000 personnes atteintes de cette maladie qui affecte les deux sexes.

Maladie de Crohn

C’est une maladie inflammatoire chronique du système digestif. Elle se caractérise principalement par des crises de douleurs abdominales et de diarrhée. En plus des intestins, cette inflammation affecte également les articulations, la bouche, la peau et les yeux. Mais le plus souvent, elle s’installe à la jonction de l’intestin grêle et du côlon. Cependant, cette maladie a un impact non seulement sur la capacité de travailler ou de faire de l’exercice mais aussi sur la qualité de vie et les activités sociales en général. Selon les médecins, il pourrait s’agir d’un défaut de la muqueuse intestinale causé par le manque d’antibiotiques endogènes.

Les symptômes de la maladie de Crohn

Les symptômes les plus courants sont : la fièvre, la fatigue, les crampes, les ballonnements, la diarrhée chronique, le saignement rectal, la douleur et la  sensibilité abdominale. Le diagnostic des MICI peut être difficile à établir du fait qu’elles peuvent affecter plusieurs parties du tractus gastro-intestinal, et tout le monde ne présente pas les mêmes symptômes. De ce fait, leur traitement n’est pas facile, d’autant plus que les patients doivent prendre divers médicaments pour combattre l’inflammation, renforcer les os, détruire les bactéries intestinales nocives, en plus de prendre d’autres vitamines.

Nouveau traitement de la maladie de Crohn par le cannabis

Les scientifiques ont trouvé une autre façon de traiter la maladie de Crohn et les MICI. Il s’agit d’un traitement avec de la Marijuana ou Cannabis. Le tétrahydrocannabinol (THC), principale substance active de la plante, est présent dans les feuilles. Cependant, il est plus concentré dans la résine que produit la fleur femelle non fécondée. Le dosage est donc mesuré en THC. Le cannabis a souvent été utilisé pour combattre la perte d’appétit, pour soulager les nausées et les vomissements associés à la chimiothérapie, et soulager la douleur causée par la sclérose en plaques et le cancer.

Le cannabis agit comme : 

  • Un anti-inflammatoire : le THC  permet d’activer les récepteurs du tractus gastro intestinal et participer ainsi à la réduction de l’inflammation chronique.
  • Un anti-diarrhéique : l’action des cannabinoïdes a tendance à ralentir la motilité intestinale et à diminuer la sécrétion de fluides causée par l’inflammation, ce qui apaise les nausées et prévient les vomissements et diarrhées.
  • Stimulateur de l’appétit : le THC active les récepteurs de la ghréline (hormone digestive qui stimule l’appétit) et envoie un signal qui passe aussi par l’axe cerveau-intestin et se rend aux régions du cerveau responsables de générer le sentiment de la faim.

En octobre 2013, la revue Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology a publié une étude d’une durée de 10 semaines qui a estimé les effets de la plante de marijuana Cannabis sativa sur les symptômes de la maladie de Crohn et d’autres MICI chez les patients. Cette étude a été portée sur un échantillon de 21 patients atteints de la maladie de Crohn, âgés en moyenne de 40 ans, qui ont traité auparavant leur MICI avec des stéroïdes, des immuno-modulateurs ou des agents anti-tumoraux, mais sans résultat. Les participants ont été divisés en deux groupes, et 11 d’entre eux ont été traités avec du cannabis avec une quantité de 115 mg de THC, deux fois par jour, et les autres ont utilisé le cannabis sans THC. Résultat : 5 des 11 participants du groupe THC cannabis ont bénéficié d’une rémission complète, leur sommeil et leur appétit se sont améliorés, la fréquence de leur diarrhée a été réduite et 3 de ces patients ont été sevrés de leur dépendance aux stéroïdes.

La question qui reste encore un dilemme est de connaître la réelle efficacité du cannabis au-delà de réduire les symptômes de l’inflammation, de la diarrhée et d’être un analgésique et un stimulateur de l’appétit.

Cependant, Il est tout de même pertinent de souligner que le cannabis apporte un soulagement sans subir les effets secondaires comme c’est le cas avec les stéroïdes. Par ailleurs, une consultation du médecin traitant est indispensable, il est le seul habilité à vous prescrire un traitement potentiel au cannabis, ainsi qu’un mode de vie et une alimentation saine pour soulager les symptômes de cette maladie.

Mises en garde :

  • Il est déconseillé de consommer du cannabis en cas de grossesse et d’allaitement, de maladies cardiovasculaires, de troubles respiratoires, de schizophrénie. De même, il peut avoir un effet immunosuppresseur.
  • Le THC peut augmenter l’effet des barbituriques, des sédatifs, des hypnotiques et des antihistaminiques.

La prise du cannabis doit être faite sous contrôle médical et non d’une façon illicite et auto médicamenteuse.

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