As infecções bacterianas podem causar fibromialgia?

Nós não sabemos muito sobre fibromialgia. Mas pelo que sabemos, é óbvio que é uma condição muito complicada. A maioria das pessoas com a doença pode se lembrar de um momento em que eles começaram a perceber os sintomas da fibromialgia. E, embora seja bastante raro encontrar pessoas que tenham exatamente a mesma história, muitas pessoas com fibromialgia relatam o desenvolvimento da doença após infecções bacterianas.

É uma pista intrigante para as possíveis origens da condição. Então, qual é exatamente a ligação entre infecção e fibromialgia? E o que pode nos dizer sobre as causas da fibromialgia?

Infecções bacterianas e fibromialgia

Nós não sabemos o que causa a fibromialgia. Mas sabemos que existem coisas que parecem aumentar sua probabilidade de desenvolver a condição. Estudos com pessoas com fibromialgia mostraram que um número significativo deles desenvolveu fibromialgia após o corpo sofrer algum tipo de trauma.

Um  estudo publicado em 2015  analisou 939 pacientes com fibromialgia e encontrou algumas correlações interessantes entre a doença e o trauma físico. 203 dos pacientes sofreram algum tipo de trauma físico antes de desenvolver a doença. E 53 tinham experimentado uma infecção bacteriana.

Os autores do estudo chamam esses “eventos precipitantes”, significando que eles parecem levar ao aparecimento dos sintomas.

Outros estudos desenharam conexões mais diretas entre eventos precipitantes e fibromialgia. Um estudo descobriu que a fibromialgia e a doença de Lyme  parecem estar intimamente ligadas . Obviamente, ambas as condições levam a sintomas semelhantes. Mas parece haver uma conexão mais profunda também.

Um estudo descobriu que em pacientes com fibromialgia que relataram o desenvolvimento da doença após uma infecção,  cerca de 15%  tinham desenvolvido após a doença de Lyme. Isso faz com que seja uma das infecções mais comuns que levam à fibromialgia. Mas  outros estudos  encontraram taxas significativas de conexão entre condições como infecção por HIV e infecção por parvovírus.

Mas, embora esses estudos pareçam sugerir que existe um vínculo entre eles, não sabemos ao certo por que isso acontece. Mais estudos são necessários para estabelecer definitivamente isso. No entanto, podemos especular sobre algumas das possíveis explicações.

As infecções bacterianas  causam  fibromialgia

Algumas pessoas sugeriram que a fibromialgia em si pode ser uma infecção bacteriana. Mas, embora pareça que as infecções bacterianas podem desencadear a fibromialgia, isso provavelmente não é o caso. Afinal, muitas pessoas, provavelmente a maioria delas, desenvolvem a doença sem sinais de infecção bacteriana. E há  muitos outros eventos  que podem desencadear a fibromialgia além da infecção.

Em vez disso, a relação entre infecção e fibromialgia é provavelmente muito mais complexa.

A primeira possibilidade é que a própria bactéria esteja causando os sintomas da fibromialgia. Em vez de desencadear a fibromialgia para se desenvolver, a bactéria está infectando o corpo e criou a condição que chamamos de fibromialgia. Essencialmente, isso significaria que a fibromialgia é mais um conjunto de sintomas comuns criados por muitas condições diferentes do que uma condição em si.

Mas isso  também é improvável . Se as bactérias estivessem causando os sintomas da fibromialgia, então seria possível controlar esses sintomas com antibióticos. Claro, isso não parece ser possível. E a maioria dos médicos rejeita essa ideia.

A explicação mais provável é que, de alguma forma, as infecções criam uma resposta no corpo que contribui para o desenvolvimento de fibromialgia.

Há evidências de que algo muda no cérebro de pessoas com fibromialgia. O sistema nervoso parece se tornar  mais sensível  à dor. E começa a transmitir sinais de dor ao longo dos nervos sem qualquer estímulo externo. E enquanto não podemos dizer com certeza que esta é a causa da fibromialgia, parece desempenhar um papel no porquê da condição causar dor.

A questão é: as infecções bacterianas desempenham algum papel no desencadeamento dessa hipersensibilidade?

Sabemos que as infecções podem levar à inflamação no tecido. E sabemos que a inflamação está associada a níveis mais altos de células imunes no sangue. E essas células imunológicas liberam algo chamado citocinas.

Citocinas são proteínas que desempenham um papel em manter o sistema imunológico funcional. Mas as citocinas também parecem desempenhar um papel nas condições de dor crônica, como a fibromialgia. As citocinas começam a desencadear respostas de dor no sistema nervoso. Com o tempo, essas respostas à dor podem desencadear hipersensibilidade.

Esta poderia ser a explicação para o fato de a infecção levar à fibromialgia. Basicamente, as infecções produzem inflamação, o que leva a citocinas. Essas citocinas  desencadeiam sinais de dor  e, eventualmente, hipersensibilidade do sistema nervoso.

E porque o sistema nervoso é agora mais sensível à dor e desencadeia sinais de dor por si só, leva à dor generalizada da fibromialgia. Esta é apenas uma teoria e mais pesquisas são necessárias. Mas é uma explicação lógica para a ligação entre infecção e fibromialgia.

Então, o que você acha? Sua fibromialgia foi desencadeada por uma infecção? O que você acha do link? Conte-nos nos comentários.

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