El Consumo Moderado de Alcohol Ayudaría a Reducir El Dolor, y el Insomnio en la Fibromialgia.

El consumo bajo o moderado de alcohol está asociado con un mayor volumen del hipocampo (En la enfermedad de Alzheimer el hipocampo es una de las primeras regiones del cerebro en sufrir daño. Los problemas de memoria y desorientación aparecen entre los primeros síntomas.

El daño al hipocampo también puede proceder de situaciones de carencia de oxígeno (hipoxia), inflamación del encéfalo (encefalitis) o epilepsia del lóbulo temporal. Las personas que han sufrido un daño extenso en el hipocampo pueden experimentar incapacidad para adquirir o retener nuevos recuerdos (amnesia), una disminución de la intensidad del dolor clínico y una mejor calidad del sueño en pacientes con fibromialgia, según una nueva investigación.

El estudio, “bajo a moderado el consumo de alcohol está asociado con el volumen del hipocampo en la fibromialgia y el insomnio”, fue publicado en Behavioral Sleep Medicine .
Los pacientes con fibromialgia suelen reportar fatiga y trastornos del sueño. De hecho, un estudio demostró que el 75% de los pacientes con fibromialgia tienen síntomas de insomnio crónico.

La fibromialgia y el insomnio crónico a menudo ocurren juntos, y ambos están asociados con una mayor sensibilidad al dolor, que puede relacionarse con el hipocampo, ya que está involucrado en estímulos del dolor.
Los estudios han demostrado que el volumen del hipocampo se reduce tanto en pacientes con fibromialgia como en pacientes con insomnio crónico.
Sin embargo, ningún estudio ha demostrado el impacto de la estructura del hipocampo, en pacientes que tienen tanto dolor crónico musculoesquelético, como insomnio crónico.

El uso de alcohol es de gran interés en esta área, ya que lleva a cabo una serie de actividades interesantes debido a sus amplias interacciones con una variedad de sistemas neurotransmisores como la inhibición de los receptores GABA (ácido gamma amino butírico) y el NMDA (n-metil d-aspartato ).

Los pacientes con fibromialgia tienen altos niveles de aminoácidos excitadores que actúan sobre los receptores NMDA, que están asociados con hiperalgesia (aumento de la sensibilización al dolor) y alodinia (una respuesta al dolor de un estímulo que normalmente no provoca dolor).
Se ha demostrado que la inhibición de los receptores GABA promueve el sueño y reduce la ansiedad.

Por lo tanto, los investigadores podrían plantear la hipótesis de que el consumo de alcohol podría ayudar a regular la fibromialgia, y los síntomas del insomnio, a través de la inhibición de NMDA, y receptores GABA.
Investigadores de la Universidad de Florida investigaron si el consumo de alcohol en pacientes con fibromialgia, con y sin insomnio crónico, se asocia con diferencias en la estructura del hipocampo por resonancia magnética.
También evaluaron el efecto del alcohol sobre una serie de medidas relacionadas con el dolor y el sueño.

Cuarenta y un pacientes con fibromialgia, de los cuales 19 tenían insomnio, fueron instruidos para completar un diario de papel con varios parámetros relacionados con este estudio, incluyendo sueño, dolor y cantidad bebida de alcohol, durante 14 días.
Esto fue seguido por una resonancia magnética estructural para determinar el volumen del hipocampo.

Curiosamente, la resonancia magnética mostró que había mayor bilaterales (dos caras) del volumen del hipocampo en bebedores moderados en comparación con los pacientes que se abstuvieron, lo que no se había informado antes.

El estudio indica que los bebedores moderados experimentaron menos dolor clínico, y mejor calidad del sueño.
Sin embargo, no hubo correlación significativa entre el volumen del hipocampo y el sueño o las medidas relacionadas con el dolor.

Por lo tanto, el alcohol puede ayudar a los síntomas de la fibromialgia mediante la actuación en múltiples niveles, en lugar de en el hipocampo solo.
“Individuos con fibromialgia sola, o fibromialgia e insomnio crónico, con el consumo de alcohol bajo a moderado, reportaron una menor sintomatología del dolor, y tuvieron un hipocampo significativamente mayor que los abstemios”, indicaron los autores.

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