Fibromyalgie : une inflammation générale

Un pas important vient d’être effectué dans la compréhension des mécanismes qui interviennent dans la fibromyalgie, concernant en particulier le processus inflammatoire.

Il a déjà été suggéré que l’inflammation chronique jouait probablement un rôle central dans la fibromyalgie, rappelle cette équipe suédoise (universités d’Uppsala et de Linköping). Toutefois, les études précédentes s’étaient intéressées à quelques molécules caractéristiques de l’inflammation, appelés cytokines. Ici, les chercheurs ont recherché simultanément une centaine de protéines associées au processus inflammatoire, et ceci dans des prélèvements de sang et de liquide céphalo-rachidien (dans lequel baignent le cerveau et la moelle épinière). Ils ont effectué ces analyses sur des patients souffrant de fibromyalgie et sur des personnes ne présentant pas la maladie.

Le résultat met en évidence des preuves « fortes » d’un double phénomène dans la fibromyalgie : neuro-inflammatoire (liquide céphalo-rachidien) et inflammatoire systémique chronique (sang). Autrement dit, l’inflammation est généralisée. Deux cytokines sortent du lot : la fractalkine et l’interleukine 8 (IL-8). Ce qu’il faut retenir, c’est le commentaire des spécialistes : « C’est la première fois qu’un profil inflammatoire aussi étendu est décrit pour la fibromyalgie, qui semble donc caractérisée par des altérations biochimiques objectives ». Ceci revient à dire que « la description de ses mécanismes comme essentiellement idiopathiques (sans cause connue) ou même psychologiques doit être considérée comme dépassée ». Et ils ajoutent que l’exploration encore plus approfondie des processus inflammatoires devrait contribuer à dégager des pistes pour la mise au point de traitements beaucoup mieux ciblés et bien plus efficaces.

23 thoughts on “Fibromyalgie : une inflammation générale

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